Strategic Measurement Plans Empirical Cases

Chevy Aveo5 Case Analysis
​The purpose of this report is to evaluate the Chevy Aveo5 case study in an effort to create a strategic measurement plan commensurate with the organization, the specific initiative, and the overall goals and objectives established. The following will provide an overview of the initiative, analyze the organization, and recommend the establishment of a superior strategic measurement plan.

The basis of the initiative was to inform the target audience of the redesigned Chevy Aveo5 through online video and social media channels. The living large college cab initiative was created to create awareness and generate sales leads virally through expansive social media connections. Free rides, fame, competition, and the chance of winning a Chevy Aveo5 were motivating factors of reaching the target audience.  

Chevrolet has a history of producing vehicles to meet target markets and has capitalized on these strengths. As part of successfully meeting the needs of the target audience, Chevy has established a reputation with its stakeholders that meets the needs of various constituents. In this instance, shareholders, customers, employees, dealers, etc. all have various levels of interest regarding the initiative and the interaction with the target audience. Identifying and prioritizing these stakeholder interests along with the goals of the initiative and organization provide a roadmap to meet the needs of each. Chevrolet key strengths are research and development and vehicle variety for target audiences, deep pockets, and reputation of quality and meeting stakeholder needs. Chevrolet may be considered weak relative to competition and advertising via social media marketing (“Chevrolet | SWOT Analysis | USP & Competitors | BrandGuide | MBA Skool-Study.Learn.Share,” n.d.).

According to a Stanford article, reaching individuals via social media with strong ties (e.g. close friends) are likely to exhibit greater similarity that those with weak ties (e.g. acquaintances), treating all relationships equally will produce unsatisfactory outcomes (Xiang & Rogati, n.d). Therefore, target marketing via social media will effectively reach the audience of like minds. The purpose of defining relationship strength is to consider other interesting applications which use relationship strength to understand human behavior (Xiang & Rogati, n.d). Understanding and predicting stakeholder relationships offers organizations a competitive advantage in reaching their audience, understanding the needs of their audience, and meeting their needs in the pursuit of reaching their own goals and objectives.

Based on the initiative, strengths and weaknesses of the organization, the goals and objectives set forth, the following are proposed recommendations to measure the impact of Chevy Aveo5 marketing initiative. First, Chevy’s goal of virally spreading information about the redesigned Chevy Aveo5 does not quantitatively connect to organizational outcomes. Outcomes in the form of increased sales as a result of this marketing initiative must be measured to determine program success. Quantifying the difference in outcomes as the result of a new initiative is essential and therefore a baseline must be established. Once the baseline is established, the variance can then be attributed to the changing marketing initiatives. According to Stacks and Michaelson, benchmarking provides a continuous evaluation of campaigns from kickoff to completion (Stacks & Michaelson, 2010).

Measuring the various components of the campaign must be established up front and align with the organizations goals. Utilizing the channels of video, internet, and social media, through the powerful motivators of competition and reward are great methods to reach this target audience. Measuring the outcomes through these channels and via components such as likes, shares, retweets, views along with the tone and share of discussion will identify the success rate of each component independently (Jeffrey, Michaelson, & Stacks, 2007). In an effort to quantify this content, established goals, metrics, and standards must be formed and translated continuously throughout the process. This will provide valuable information regarding the success or failure of the initiative. For example, if the custom website does not produce results, alternatives must be sought. Or, if the taxi cab videos spread virally and have a quality connection to the Aveo5, Chevy has this knowledge to spend more resources in this area or duplicate the campaign at other college campuses.

Once the desired content is established and in accessible formats, consumers will generate interest that will drive outcomes. When the right content is provided through the most effective channels the success rate of producing outcomes aligned with the goals is improved. Social media outlets can virally get the information to masses, however the content provided must be quality and desired by the target audience. A strategy of targeting groups is time consuming and requires intensive research and analysis of how best to reach these audiences with approaches that harness and maximize the potential benefits of multi-model social media usage (Khatri et al., 2015). Initiatives thoroughly researched and understood will understand their target audience and define the right measurement criteria.

Measuring the results through Google analytics will keep stakeholders informed of progress. Google analytics offers reports that measure traffic by channel which will highlight the most valuable network relationships. Other reports identify where your audience originated, whether it is organic, social, email, or website. Google analytics can also measure variance in traffic based on campaign (Lee, 2015). Google analytics is an automatic and efficient method for measuring online activities and the outcomes associated.

By utilizing Chevrolets core strengths, accounting for their weaknesses, defining the needs of the target audience and the channels in which they will most positively respond will produce results that meet or exceed the outcomes expected through the initiative. Through the process of measuring outcomes, the organization gains a deeper understanding of the customer and all stakeholders of which they can use to improve outcomes in the future. 

Spendster Case Analysis

​The Spendster case goals were to broaden personal financial education to a target audience of tech-savvy young people in an engaging meaningful way. Bloggers and reporters are used as the channel to reach the primary audience. The project had three qualitative objectives; help consumers better understand their personal needs and wants, encourage consumers to think before they buy and to spend wisely, and test the social media waters. The initiative created the Spendster website which allowed users to gain a reality check on their spending habits and the long-term impacts their decisions had on other aspects of their lives. The Spendster project had opportunities and hurdles throughout. Faced with limited resources, Spendster was forced to do more with less. This offered challenging circumstances when trying promote and develop a website to reach their target audience. However, the Spendster program was met with enthusiastic partners to virally spread financial knowledge to improve spending decisions.

​Understanding the ultimate goal was to educate people to make smarter financial decisions, Spendster developed a fun, interactive tool that highlighted people’s poor decisions that prevented them from reaching more important longer-term financial goals. Spendster brought this tool to the consumer through educational material and social media channels. The tool may have been effective at portraying the consumers as bad decision makers, however was it successful at helping them make better decisions going forward? The following will address how to measure these qualitative goals, reach the audience more effectively, and measure the outcomes associated with the Spendster program.

​The success of the Spendster initiative must be measured to ensure the goals were achieved. As stated, the goals of Spendster are qualitative in nature. Measuring qualitative goals requires alternate methods of measurement that align with the important criteria set forth for the project. According to the International Journal of Qualitative Methods, qualitative content analysis is a descriptive research method involving development of coding frame and qualitative coding of data (Snelson, 2016). Further research in the Journal of Advertising Research offers methods of obtaining this data from a qualitative perspective through online focus groups, online depth interviews, and netnography, each provide a statistical measurement of impact on qualitative measurement (Schivinski, Christodoulides, & Dabrowski, 2016, p. 67).  

Online focus groups identify specific actions before the Spendster interaction and intended or real behaviors after the Spendster interaction based on the content delivered within the website. Online depth interviews sought to obtain information electronically regarding their financial behaviors before their interaction with Spendster and then again at some point afterwards to quantify and extrapolate statistical significance of the program. And finally, netnography is an online observation study by researchers unaware of the context of the Spendster program. This anonymity keeps the measurement unbiased. These three measurements should be combined to weigh the overall qualitative impact of the program.

​Another method of reaching the target audience is through search optimization and the measurement of where the traffic is generated. Data analytics are important components of ensuring marketing efforts align with business goals. The website wiredprworks.com states that search engine optimization is one of the most effective ways to reach target audiences (Rozgonyi, B. 2008). Combining search optimization with social media channels will produce even greater impact reaching like-minded individuals interested in developing their financial skills. According to Communications of the ACM, today’s social media is designed to maximize information propaganda and virility (through optimization of clicks and shares) to the detriment of engagement and consensus building (Cebrian, Rahwan, & Pentland, 2016). This fact suggests it is difficult and more important than ever to provide valuable content in which consumers are willing to engage. Measuring this engagement on the Spendster site is imperative to the success of the initiative.

According to the article Using Web Analytics to Measure the Impact of Earned Online Media on Business Outcomes: A Methodological Approach; web analytics do provide accessible and cost-effective means of measuring the relative contribution of PR to business goals (Duncan, 2010). Measuring the results by attaching Google analytic reports to the Spendster website will provide measurement of traffic by channel, will identify the most valuable network relationships. Google analytics can also measure variance in traffic based on campaign (Lee, 2015). Google analytics is a powerful tool that provides the real time knowledge to leaders so progress is understood, adjustments can be implemented, and outcomes are measured.  

According to Duncan (2010), organizations can and should use statistical analysis to which aspects of coverage are most important at driving results. The aforementioned components of measuring outcomes related to the Spendster initiative will provide the information necessary to determine if true outcomes are reached and if the method used was successful. Coding the important attributes, studying qualitative impacts, and combining web analytics through the Spendster site will provide the relevant information necessary to measure the overall success of the program and independent performance of various components throughout.

References

Cebrian, M., Rahwan, I., & Pentland, A. (2016). Viewpoint beyond viral. Communications of the ACM, 59(4), 36-39.

Chevrolet | SWOT Analysis | USP & Competitors | BrandGuide | MBA Skool-Study.Learn.Share. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.mbaskool.com/brandguide/automobiles/1132-chevrolet.html

Duncan, S. (2010, Feb). Using Web Analytics to Measure the Impact of Earned Online Media on Business Outcomes. Retrieved from Institute for Public Relations: http://www.instituteforpr.org/wp-content/uploads/Seth_Duncan_Web_Analytics.pdf

Jeffrey, A., Michaelson, D., & Stacks, D. (2007). Exploring the link between share of media coverage and business outcomes. Institute for Public Relations.

Khatri, C., Chapman, S. J., Glasbey, J., Kelly, M., Nepogodiev, D., Bhangu, A., & Fitzgerald, J. E. (2015). Social media and internet driven study recruitment: Evaluating a new model for promoting collaborator engagement and participation. PLoS ONE, 10(3), 1-11.

Lee, K. (2015, November 6). The five most meaningful Google analytics reports for social media marketers. Retrieved from https://blog.bufferapp.com/google-analytics-reports-social-media

Rozgonyi, B. (2008, December 9). SEO PR Chicago Search Engine Strategies | Twitter Transcripts. Retrieved from http://wiredprworks.com/seo-pr-chicago-search-engine-strategies/

Snelson, C. (2016). Qualitative and mixed methods social media research: A review of the literature. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 1-15.

Stacks, D. W., & Michaelson, D. (2010). A practitioner’s guide to public relations research, measurement and evaluation. New York, N.Y.] (222 East 46th Street: Business Expert Press.

Xiang, R., & Rogati, M. (n.d.). Modeling relationship strength in online social networks. Retrieved from http://snap.stanford.edu/nipsgraphs2009/papers/xiang-paper.pdf

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

18 LinkedIn Apps, Tools, and Resources | Boolean Black Belt-Sourcing/Recruiting. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://booleanblackbelt.com/2011/01/18-linkedin-apps-tools-and-resources/

Retrieved from http://www.Facebook.com

Carpenter, S., & Lertpratchya, A. P. (2016). A qualitative and quantitative study of social media communicators: An extension of role theory to digital media workers. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 60(3), 448-464.

What is LinkedIn? | LinkedIn. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.linkedin.com/static?key=what_is_linkedin&trk=hb_what

 

Measuring Impact of LinkedIn Features

LinkedIn Social Media Assessment
LinkedIn is an organization built on the foundation of career networking, staying in touch with colleagues, learning, sharing, and ultimately powering your career through social media (“What is LinkedIn? | LinkedIn, “n.d.). LinkedIn offers tools and resources such as; resume building, InMaps, Swarm, Signal, LinkedIn browser toolbars, and LinkedIn ads. Each of these functions offer powerful connections for users of LinkedIn (“18 LinkedIn Apps, Tools, and Resources | Boolean Black Belt-Sourcing/Recruiting,” n.d.). LinkedIn is used by millions of individuals and organizations worldwide as a means to better align talent with organizational demands.

Other than the massive social network LinkedIn has created for itself, they have a strong presence on Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram to name a few of the popular social media applications. The LinkedIn social media activity essentially shares your personal career profile and allows access to network with others, search, educate, and communicate with professionals worldwide. LinkedIn makes frequent, daily updates on these social media applications promoting useful or new features, events, podcasts, and articles of interest that are incorporated into the LinkedIn network. Facebook posts promote inspirational speakers, LinkedIn learning events, articles targeted at job seekers, and education opportunities with direct opportunities to like, message, and share for exponential impact (Facebook, n.d.).

The purpose of establishing and maintaining a strong social media presence is to communicate and contribute information related to organizational goals, missions, and functions (Carpenter, & Lertpratchya, 2016). In the case of LinkedIn; individuals, groups, and employers contribute their career portfolios to enhance the career building process. Transparent communication is essential in providing valuable opportunities for individuals and organizations alike. LinkedIn provides the tools necessary to build and share these experiences in an honest transparent manner.

LinkedIn’s use of social media markets, advertises, and educates users of the potential impact their career networking site can provide. The goal is to motivate individuals to take ownership of their profiles and manage their progress and performance through the LinkedIn site. According to the Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, social media tools allow individuals and organizations to sustain knowledge over time, cultivate relationships among multiple groups and individuals, and target and coordinate niche audiences (Carpenter, & Lertpratchya, 2016, p. 449). LinkedIn’s goals align with these values and their platform facilitates these goals in becoming reality.

In this strictly technological environment, it is ideal to measure the performance of their social media activity. First, clearly defined goals and outcomes must be established. For example, LinkedIn may want to measure the effectiveness of an upcoming seminar including a motivational speaker that was advertised via the social media channels mentioned above. This seminar is a live event that is also streamed via Skype and saved for users interested in reviewing in the future. Tracking attendance and or views back to the source of information is done through online registering for the event. To measure the effectiveness of this event, variables must be defined. The event is promoting new tools offered at LinkedIn, expanding networks, and obtaining interviews from prospective employers. Each of these goals can be tracked through LinkedIn analytics when compared to benchmarked performance. The variance in network expansion and successful interview or job placement activity as compared to the benchmarked results is attributable to the new LinkedIn tools and promotion through the event. If this variance meets the goals established the promotion was a success.  

References

18 LinkedIn Apps, Tools, and Resources | Boolean Black Belt-Sourcing/Recruiting. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://booleanblackbelt.com/2011/01/18-linkedin-apps-tools-and-resources/

Retrieved from http://www.Facebook.com

Carpenter, S., & Lertpratchya, A. P. (2016). A qualitative and quantitative study of social media communicators: An extension of role theory to digital media workers. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 60(3), 448-464.

What is LinkedIn? | LinkedIn. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.linkedin.com/static?key=what_is_linkedin&trk=hb_what

 

Measuring Relationship Strength

​The article Modeling Relationship Strength on Online Social Networks examines the significance of relationship homophily through a social media lens by statistical modeling. According to Stacks and Michaelson, homophily measures the degree of similarity between people attitudinal and behavioral attributes (Stacks, & Michaelson, 2010, p. 45). The research attempts to enhance the modeling and measurement of social media interactions to gain knowledge of specific attributes and behaviors. The following will summarize the report findings which offer insights useful for organizations using social media to their advantage.
​Online social networks are quickly becoming a dominant tool for organizations to pursue relationship opportunities. The popularity of use, along with the low cost of entry, combined with the potential reach of targeted customer’s makes social media an attractive channel for organizational relationship building. As Rawlins clearly pointed out in the article Prioritizing Stakeholders for Public Relations, not all stakeholders have the same interests and demands, therefore organizational response must be tailored to each independently (Rawlins, 2006). Hence, it is useful to model and measure social network activities in an attempt to identify and reach your intended audience more effectively.  

The article posits that individuals with strong ties (e.g. close friends) are likely to exhibit greater similarity that those with weak ties (e.g. acquaintances), treating all relationships equally will produce unsatisfactory outcomes (Xiang & Rogati, n.d). Knowing social media is inclusive of all types of relationships, the objective is to identify the strength of relationships through measurement of social media data. The authors further explore the relationship strength formed through social media interactions and how these relationships form groups with varying degrees of connections. The purpose of defining relationship strength is to consider other interesting applications which use relationship strength to understand human behavior (Xiang & Rogati, n.d). Understanding and predicting stakeholder relationships offers organizations a competitive advantage in reaching their audience, understanding the needs of their audience, and meeting these needs.

​Xiang and Rogati developed a model to automatically measure the strength of relationships through the use of statistical analysis comparing variables such as likes, posting on walls, reciprocating postings, tagging, and top friend status, all of which offer insights into the strength of a relationship. The model attempts to represent the intrinsic causality of social interactions via statistical dependencies (Xiang & Rogati, n.d). Understanding and measuring the strength of relationships through social media delivers organizational knowledge to more effectively reach target audiences with the right message at the right time.

​When a systemic model of relationship measurement is implemented through the fast paced, ever changing social media platforms, organizations have a continuous-valued measure of relationship strength. Smart organizations use this knowledge to develop targeted marketing efforts and communication strategies that are tailored specifically for the intended stakeholder group, hereby meeting the needs of various stakeholders in the most effective manner to ensure outcomes are generated and business goals are met.

References

Rawlins, B. L. (2006). Prioritizing stakeholders for public relations. Institute for Public Relations.

Stacks, D. W., & Michaelson, D. (2010). A practitioner’s guide to public relations research, measurement and evaluation. New York, N.Y.] (222 East 46th Street: Business Expert Press.

Xiang, R., & Rogati, M. (n.d.). Modeling relationship strength in online social networks. Retrieved from http://snap.stanford.edu/nipsgraphs2009/papers/xiang-paper.pdf

 

 

Web Traffic, Outcomes, & Business Objectives

​Paul May, CEO of Buzzstream explains, “Purchase decisions are now influenced by complex networks of friends, family, and peers. The new market winners will be the companies that excel at identifying and engaging with customers’ influencers across the social web (Evans, McKee, & Bratton, 2010).” The purpose of this report is to discuss whether web traffic itself produces business outcomes, opportunities to measure and enhance social and web outcomes, and the importance of aligning business objectives with social media initiatives. The following will explore these concepts and offer solutions for consideration to improve overall business goals through social and web based platforms.
​Web traffic, in-and-of itself does not support business outcomes unless you get customers to stop, browse, and engage in your products and services. The web is a great promotional tool for businesses, the possibilities are endless, and so too are the quantity of data and competition seeking to engage a piece of a limited pie. The author of Issues in Measurement of Word of Mouth in Social Media Advertising states, the sheer amount of information available on the social web can be intimidating, but thoughtful analysis can lead to useful intelligence (Fogel, 2010, p. 58). Organizations must commit to the development of their web based presence to achieve their goals through outcome based interactions. According to the Journal of Advertising Research, the interactive nature of social media ultimately has changed how consumers engage with brands. When using social media on a regular basis, consumers come in contact with many brands and products by reading, writing, watching, commenting, liking, sharing, and so forth (Schivinski, Christodoulides, & Dabrowski, 2016). The key is to engage with the customer to promote their products and services that result in outcomes aligned with the business objectives.

To effectively target customers through social and web based channels, organizations must develop their strategy based on specific target market demographics that align with pre-established business goals. Before managers can more confidently employ social media marketing, they need to understand how consumers behave and interact with brands on those channels (Schivinski, Christodoulides, & Dabrowski, 2016). Understanding the customer behavior is the best way to generate programs that produce outcomes. Social media is largely a free-to-use medium, which can be harnessed to advertise and meet business goals. It can potentially reach large, targeted populations rapidly, providing opportunities for customers and businesses whom may not otherwise be engaged. This strategy of targeting groups is time consuming and requires intensive research and analysis of how best to reach these audiences with approaches that harness and maximize the potential benefits of multi-model social media usage (Khatri et al., 2015). Practitioners should continue their social-media agendas by being present on social-media channels, and continuously producing engaging content that their target audience will most likely consume (Schivinski, Christodoulides, & Dabrowski, 2016). Organizations that best understand their customers will broaden their reach and gain a competitive advantage.  

An example of effective use of social media and or web based marketing is seen in Zappos.com. Zappos has built an extraordinary reputation through positive and effective web marketing, creating an environment in which customers and employees are drawn to the organization. Zappos understands the importance of researching and targeting customers in a manner consistent with their overall goals and objectives. Zappos transforms web traffic into engaged customers and business outcomes. Organizations must invest in social web engagement similar to Zappos that measurably contributes to business outcomes.

References

Evans, D., McKee, J., & Bratton, S. (2010). Social media marketing: The next generation of business engagement.

Fogel, S. (2010). Issues in measurement of word of mouth in social media marketing. International Journal of Integrated Marketing Communications, 2(2), 54-60.

Khatri, C., Chapman, S. J., Glasbey, J., Kelly, M., Nepogodiev, D., Bhangu, A., & Fitzgerald, J. E. (2015). Social media and internet driven study recruitment: Evaluating a new model for promoting collaborator engagement and participation. PLoS ONE, 10(3), 1-11.

Schivinski, B., Christodoulides, G., & Dabrowski, D. (2016). Measuring consumers’ engagement with brand-related social-media content development and validation of a scale that identifies levels of social-media engagement with brands. Journal of Advertising Research, 56(1), 64-80.

 

Strengths and Weaknesses of Measurement

        The purpose of this report is to discuss the strengths and weaknesses of measurement as it relates to the SAS Socialcast case study. The SAS Socialcast case study provides empirical evidence of the effectiveness of creating an environment of seamless, rapid communication available to everyone. The culture of collaboration and knowledge sharing enhances relations and productivity. However, measuring the impact of these efforts offers strengths, weaknesses, and opportunities. The following will explore these strengths and weaknesses and offer solutions for consideration.

        Measuring the impact of the enterprise social network (ESN) provides information on the effectiveness of the tool. According to the SAS Case Study, the investment in the ESN, offered numerous business purposes, such as, enhancing transparency and speed of communication, client satisfaction, collaboration across business locations, employee engagement, efficiency gains, and productivity improvements (Socialcast by VMware, 2012). Each of these functions or effects can be measured to better understand the collective effectiveness of the ESN tool. Measuring the impact of the ESN will also provide information on the return on investment of the product and services provided. These valuable insights into each purpose will identify areas of strengths and weaknesses. SAS has seemingly benefited from an organizational culture that provides a great reputation internally and externally. The following will further explore the strengths and weaknesses inherent in measuring performance and outcomes.
The collection of historical and current data allows organizations to evaluate their past performance to make smarter business decisions that support current and future business needs. Measuring employee performance offers insights into productivity and opportunities for improvements. Measuring organizational results as they relate to customer expectations and satisfaction as a result of the implemented ESN service provides valuable information on the impact on these enhancements. Measuring the organizational climate variance represented by employee satisfaction, engagement and productivity offers insight into the impact on the organization. Each of these strengths offer valuable insights regarding the impact a project has on the organization.
Weaknesses associated with measuring performance may include; subjectivity of soft data, interpretation of information, error in results, and or incorrect assumptions and poor understanding. Any one of these weaknesses can cripple the measurement process. It is imperative that the criteria for measurement are established in advance and aligned with company goals and objectives. According to an article published by the Institute for Public Relations, PR professionals can directly measure the business value of carefully targeted social media opportunities (Duncan, n.d.).  
Measurement is more challenging when dealing with subjective data. The point is to clearly establish criteria with systematic consistency when measuring the results. Establishing benchmarks and goals allows professionals a way to establish campaign impact and public relations effectiveness as related to marketing and advertising indicators, demonstrating impact on final return on investment (Stacks, & Michaelson, 2010, p. 29). A challenge with measuring peoples’ behaviors or expressions is that each human perceives information differently through their beliefs and values (Stacks, & Michaelson, 2010, p. 36). Focusing measurements on cultural beliefs and language offers insights into belief systems and allows for generalized measurement opportunities of targeted markets. Insights that provide organizations with empirical evidence of their effectiveness are invaluable and must be measured against organizational goals and objectives.  
Organizations must perform secondary research when developing project goals such as the SAS Socialcast project. Researching and analyzing product offerings, competitors, expected business goals and objectives. This proactive approach will ensure the investment returns value to the organization in the manner intended. A statistical analysis will evaluate the correlation between variables to identify their strength and provide valuable insights on programs that are successful and others that may need improvements. As pointed out in the discussion; there are strengths, challenges, and opportunities at stake. Measuring and understanding potential variances and their impact on the organization are essential. According to our text, A Practitioner’s Guide to Public Relations Research, Measurement, and Evaluation, strategic and proactive approaches to the evaluation of the marketing mix requires that professionals have an understanding of the past, competitors, expected business goals (Stacks, & Michaelson, 2010, p. 64).  
Reliability means what you are measuring will be measured the same each time. Validity means that you are actually measuring what you say you are measuring (Stacks, & Michaelson, 2010, p. 40). Using reliable, validated data is essential to obtain quality results. There is an error component when predicting outcomes and behaviors even with reliable validated data. Hence, establishing systematic data gathering of reliable, validated information reduces the significance of error in measurement. According to the article Total Survey Error in Public Opinion Quarterly, publication error exists when limitations of data or misinterpretations are not understood or disclosed (Groves & Lyberg, 2010, p. 853). Establishing a scale of reliability and validity is an important strength if accomplished or weakness if not.  
Organizations such as SAS have proven the value of establishing an ethically responsible culture where professionals are creating, measuring, and disclosing their programs accurately. When programs are measured to ensure success with transparency into the process, the outcomes are positive from an employee engagement, productivity, customer satisfaction, and return on investment for the organization.
References
Duncan, S. (n.d.). Institute for Public Relations. Retrieved from http://www.instituteforpr.org/wp-content/uploads/Seth_Duncan_Web_Analytics.pdf 

Groves, R. M., & Lyberg, L. (2010). Total survey error past, present, and future. Public Opinion Quarterly, 74(5), 849-879. 

Socialcast by VMware. (2012). Retrieved from http://www.socialcast.com/files-SAS-Case-Study.pdf 

Stacks, D. W., & Michaelson, D. (2010). A practitioner’s guide to public relations research, measurement and evaluation. New York, N.Y.] (222 East 46th Street: Business Expert Press. 

Measuring the so-called unmeasurable. 

The company I chose to analyze the Facebook content and code against core company goals and objectives is Wells Fargo. Wells Fargo core vision and value proposition is trust, understanding that it does not happen in one transaction, in one day on the job, or in one quarter. Trust is earned relationship by relationship (“Vision and Values – Wells Fargo, “n.d.). Wells Fargo objectives are to grow their business through these trusting relationships providing services for customers as their financial needs evolve through life. According to Marketrealist.com, Wells Fargo strategy is to increase customer engagement and loyalty and increase efficiency through technology. These two important goals align well with a social media strategy (Perez, 2014).To analyze the impact of social media against the goals of the organization, a random sampling of 10 Wells Fargo Facebook posts, comments, likes, and shares will provide a coding perspective that supports the goals and objectives of the company. The structured protocol evaluates posts and comments for positive, negative or neutral weighted outcomes. The coding weighted the posts and comments on a scale of 0-20 points based on the following criteria: Reference to trust or relationship building, clarity of message, tone, response timing, and number of likes, shares and views. Each of these criteria provides perspective on achieving the goals of nurturing a trusting environment through improved relationships to achieve repeat business. According to an article published by the Institute for Public Relations, PR professionals can directly measure the business value of carefully targeted social media opportunities (Duncan, n.d.). The results of the analysis are summarized below using a sliding scale with criteria supporting the scores. The average score from 10 random posts based on the following criteria:

1. Does the post reference trust or relationship building?

(0-10 for no words trust, or relationships) (11-15 if words exist) (16-20 if trusting situational story about relationships)

Average score 16.4

2. Clarity of Message

(0-10 for unclear messaging) (11-15 for semi-clear messaging) (16-20 for very clear messaging)

Average score 14.4

3. Tone of Message

(0-10 for negative tone of message) (11-15 for neutral to positive tone) (16-20 for upbeat positive tone)

Average score 16.4

4. Wells Fargo Response Timing

(0-10 if no response or responded to greater than 7 days later) (11-15 for comments between 1-7 days) (16-20 if response time is less than 1 day)

Average score 16.3

5. Quantity of Likes & Shares

(0-10 for less than 20 likes and shares) (11-15 for 20-100 likes and shares) (16-20 if greater than 100 likes and shares)

 Average score 16

As the analysis point out, the categories ranked relatively high with regard to trust, tone, responsiveness, and reach. It also points out the lacking clarity of message. Most of the categories provided upper quadrant results, however constant improvement is imperative to maintain a positive social media presence that supports the goals of building trusting relationships and enhancing engagement and efficiency. As socialmediaexaminer.com states, engagement and reach are the most important metrics when analyzing social media impact (Ernoult, 2013). Wells Fargo has opportunities to improve their reach and customer engagement through social media.

In conclusion, Wells Fargo Facebook does a relatively decent job at aligning social media marketing efforts with the goals and objectives of the greater organization. A couple of cautionary items to note include; the comments section seemed to channel mostly negative feedback, sometimes related to the post and other times off topic; and the perspective of the post is slanted towards the company with limited external influence. Overall, Wells Fargo has done a good job of diversifying the outreach through social media to reach sub groups of the population that broadens their reach and impact.  

References

Duncan, S. (n.d.). Institute for Public Relations. Retrieved from http://www.instituteforpr.org/wp-content/uploads/Seth_Duncan_Web_Analytics.pdf

Ernoult, E. (2013, March 18). 6 Facebook Metrics Marketers Should Be Measuring : Social Media Examiner. Retrieved from http://www.socialmediaexaminer.com/facebook-page-metrics/

Perez, S. (2014, October 9). Why Wells Fargo is leveraging technology to cut costs – Market Realist. Retrieved from http://marketrealist.com/2014/10/why-wells-fargo-is-leveraging-technology-to-cut-costs/

Vision and Values – Wells Fargo. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.wellsfargo.com/about/corporate/vision-and-values/

 

Importance of leadership & measuring public relations

​Measuring public relations is possible and important for organizations to understand how the public relates to and values the company. In an era of big data, it is imperative for companies to prioritize the analysis and attention to the important topic of public relations in an effort to enhance their image in the marketplace. Leadership must devote resources and support a culture of positive public relations that adds value to the organization. The following will discuss the possibilities and importance of measuring public relations and supporting public relations awareness through strong organizational leadership.

​Through strong, thoughtful, intentional organizational leadership, the measurement of public relations is possible and beneficial. Our text, A Practitioner’s Guide to Public Relations Research, Measurement, and Evaluation opines, public relations as measurable through well established goals and objectives that are integrated throughout and clearly defined (Stacks, & Michaelson, 2010, p. 16). When leadership promotes the importance of strong public relations, and defines metrics that support the value of public relations, the organization will develop an understanding and respect for their actions and the impact to the bottom line. Public relations outcomes must have a demonstrated correlation to business outcomes (Stacks, & Michaelson, 2010, p. 26).

​Public relations consist of people’s attitudes, beliefs, and values (Stacks, & Michaelson, 2010, p. 36); therefore, measuring public relations is more challenging than measuring hard data. However, it is possible and recommended to ensure proper attention and resources are committed to the right areas that will add the most value or return on investment for the organization. Measurements are achieved through polls, surveys, and questionnaires in an attempt to identify attitudes, beliefs and values associated with intentions and actual behavior (Stacks, & Michaelson, 2010, p. 38). These measurements provide varying perspectives of the organization or specific programs in an attempt to measure impact. There are three basic forms of measurement, including; equal appearing interval scale, Likert-type measures, and semantic differential measures (Stacks, & Michaelson, 2010, p. 38). The goals of each are to identify where on a scale of negative to positive feelings does the person fit in regard to the company, product, service or advertisement in question. Acquiring and accumulating these results and comparing the intended behaviors to actual organizational results (such as increased or decreased sales) will identify the public relations impact on specific projects.

Leadership has the power to influence organizational behaviors that promote positive public relations with targeted customers. According to the Journal of Public Relations Research, leaders that facilitate effective strategic communication identify the crucial dimensions of public relations and develop reliable and valid measurement of these associated dimensions (Meng & Berger, 2013, p. 142). Developing a culture cognizant of the importance of public relations, demands leadership that is committed to fostering an environment that supports the organizational goals. Public relations leadership construct encompasses six essential dimensions: self-dynamics, team collaboration, ethical orientation, relationship building, strategic decision making capability, and communications knowledge management capability (Meng & Berger, 2013, p. 158).

While the measurement of public relations impact on organizational goals is subjective, uncommon, challenging to identify and interpret; most would agree there is a strong correlation between successful messaging and organizational outcomes. Leaders must establish clear communication, promoting the aforementioned attributes, which support a culture of achieving goals and objectives through measuring public relations results.

References

Meng, J., & Berger, B. (2013). An integrated model of excellent leadership in public relations: Dimensions, measurement, and validation. Journal of Public Relations Research, 25(2), 141-167.

Stacks, D. W., & Michaelson, D (2010). A practitioner’s guide to public relations research, measurement and evaluation. New York, N.Y.] (222 East 46th Street: Business Expert Press